2.On defining


1.What are the main kinds of information in a dictionary?

The mai types of information in a dictionary are:

the form (or the appearance)-is it a book or a database,

the content(or meaning)-the meaning of the lexical entries in relation to other words.

the structure of the text (or formulation)-what kind of dictionary-semasiological or onomasiological,kind of definitions (ostensive ,recursive,by nearest kind and specific differences)

2.Give examples of


structure:construction of words,

content:definition,relation with other words,etc.

3.What si the main kind of information which dictionary users are interested in ?

A dictionary user is most interested in the meaning of the words,their definition by genus proximum et differentia specifica.

4.Find dictionary definitions of five different words of different parts of speech and give examples of genus and differentia specifica,and examples of other kinds of definition.

a)cook,(noun)=a person who cooks or whose job is cooking.

genus =person

differentia specifica=who cooks

b)shiver(verb)=to shake slightly because you are cold,frightened ,excited,etc

genus=to shake

differentia specifica=slightly

c)creepy(adjective)=stange in a way that makes you feel nervous.


differentia specifica=in a way that makes you feel nervous

d)gratis(adverb)=done or given without to be payed for

genus =done or given

differentia specifica=without to be payed for

e)after(preposition)=behind somebody when they have left.

genus=behind somebody

differentia specifica=when they have left


definition=a statement that explains the meaning of a word or phrase (Cambridge Dictionary)

explanation=statemen or piece of writing that tells you how sth works or makes sth easier to understand(Oxford dictionary 2000)

6.Give detailed examples, from at least 3 different kinds of dictionary,of


a) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English
AS Hornby , Sally Wehmeier, Michael Ashby
Sixth edition
Oxford University Press 2000
ISBN 0 19 431 5339

b) Concise THESAURUS
Rosalind Fergusson, Martin Manser, David Pickering
Penguin Books 2002

ISBN 0-140-51520-8

c) Oxford Collocations dictionary for students of English
Different publishers and editors
Oxford University Press 2002
ISBN 0-19-431243-7

-types of lexical information for 3 different kinds of lexical entry:



noun (pl. donkeys) 1 a domesticated hoofed mammal of the horse family with long ears and a braying call. 2 informal a foolish person.

— PHRASES donkey’s years informal a very long time. talk the hind leg off a donkey Brit. informal talk incessantly.

— ORIGIN perhaps from DUN1, or from the given name Duncan(Compact Oxford English Dictionary)

(semasiological dictionary)

spin=spin your wheels American, informal

to waste time doing things that achieve nothing

If we're just spinning our wheels, let us know and we'll quit.(Cambridge Idioms Dictionary)

(dictionary of idioms)

move =go ,walk,proceed,progress,advance ,pass,budge,stir,shift,change position,rare locomote(Oxford Thesaurus of English 2000)

(dictionary of synonyms and antonyms=thesaurus)

7.Create definitions by nearest kind and specific differences for:

hip-hop=style of music prefered by black people

love=feeling that all people have at a certain moment in their lives

lasagna=an Italian dish made from layers of lasagna,finely chopped meat and /or vegetables and white sauce.

8.Describe in detail what is the reality and what are artefacts in the text model given in the text theory introduction:

The text model is very abstract. It presents the different properties of a text that can't be devided so exactly when analysing a text.

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