Glossary

GLOSSARY


acronym=
a word consisting of the first letters of a phrase,having its meaning.eg.NATO

affix=a morpheme( a bound one)which can be a prefix,suffix,circumfix,infix,circumfix,superfix and which is added to a stem.

allomorph=different forms of the same(bound )morpheme

antonym= a word which has different form and opposite meaning to another one.Thus,they are antonyms.

bbb=bahuvrihi(exocentric compound)

is a compound of two other stems,each having its own meaning,but put together ,the new word(the compound)has a totally different meaning from theirs.It has the formula:
a+b=c

co-hyponym=equivalenet subordinate terms

complex word=is a ford that consists of at least one stem and that can be a compound ,a derivation(in which has one stem and inflexion),a blend or an abbreviation

computational linguistics=a descipline that involves both linguistics and informatics,and is concerned with dealing with huge amounts of words,developing precise models of grammar and lexic which can be processed automaticaly.

Concordance=A list of all words in a corpus held on a computer database showing every example of a particular word in a corpus.

Corpus linguistics= The branch of linguistics which analyses large corpora (bodies, collections) of written texts or recordings of speech.

Database=An organized set of data that is stored in a computer and can be looked at and used
in various ways.

Dvandva (bicentric compounds)=The meaning of these compounds is calculated according to the formula an AB is an
A and B

Etymology=The study of the origins, history, and changing meanings of words.

Grapheme=(linguistics) The smallest unit that has meaning in a writing system.(àphoneme)

Homonym=Same pronunciation and same spelling for different things; e.g. face (front)- face(head)

Hyperonym=Superordinate term (e.g. an ape is an animal, a poodle is a dog)

IPA (abbr.)=1. International Phonetic Alphabet (a notation system that is used to show the pronunciation of words in any language).
2. International Phonetic Association (founded in 1886)

Lemma=The headword in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, the form looked up.(a degrammaticalised word)

Lexeme=The smallest meaningful objects having a lexical meaning.

Lexicography=The theory and practice of writing dictionaries

Macrostructure=The structure according to which categorisation and search functions can be defined. In general, it is possible to differentiate between two different models. Semasiological macrostructure is form- based, assigning meaning to a form. Onomasiological macrostructure is not form- based, but concept/meaning oriented.

Meronymy=Semantic relation in which something is composed of different parts (e.g. a wheel is part of a car).

Metadata=the data giving information about the production of the product(eg.location and year,publisher and code for a dictionary )

Microstructure=The inherent structure of each lexicon entry; denotes the smallest surface of a lexicon.

Morpheme= The smallest meaningful units,with lexical or grammatical meaning. A word can be comprised of one or more morphemes.

Orthography =The standard system used to write a language is called orthography (from Greek ortho = correct, graphy = writing)

Ostensive definition =Definition by showing (a picture or a life model).

Phoneme=Smallest meaning distinguishing unit(s) in a language. Speech sounds that make two words distinguishable.

Polysemy=One word that has two (or more) (closely) related meanings.

Recursive definition=Defines a word in terms of itself. For defining infinite sets of items; start with root of a word and add something to it ?

Spelling-sound rule = Phonotactics: Possible combinations of phonemes into syllables and words.

Stem (grammar)= The main part of a word that stays the same when endings are added to it: ‘Writ’ is the stem of the forms ‘writes’, ‘writing’ and ‘written’.
A stem is the root or roots of a word, together, to which with any derivational affixes
inflectional affixes are added.

Suffix (grammar) =A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to make another word,
such as -ly in quickly or -ness in sadness—compare AFFIX, PREFIX.
Synonym =Words which mean the same (or similar) thing and can be exchanged for each other.
(e.g. start/begin, near/close).

Syntagmatic relations=Relations of compositionality which construct larger units out of smaller units, e.g. syllables out of phonemes; expressed by rules and networks.
Tatpurusa =The meaning of these compounds is (or endocentric compounds) calculated according to the formula an AB is a B.

Taxonomy =The science of classification according to a pre-determined system, with the resulting
catalogue used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis, or information retrieval. (From the Greek word taxis (arrangement) and nomos (law). See
also Ontology.
Text technology =The interdisciplinary field which involves both text linguistics and computer science,
and which is in some respects a specialisation of computational linguistics in the area of
computation with text data (e.g. the world-wide web, information retrieval in libraries)
.

Zero-derivation=Special phenomenon in English. It means that a word can change its wordclass without the addition of other morphemes (or by adding an empty morpheme). (e.g. I hope / I have




1 Kommentar 23.1.07 03:39, kommentieren