1.Text theory


Quiz 1

1.Why is a portofolio important?

A portfolio is an important source of informations for preparing for the exam .It consists of notes ,exercises and other materials that can be later useful in refreshing knowledge gained in previous classes.

2.What should a portfolio contain and how are these components defined?

A portfolio should contain :a table of contents,a body(with all the informations )and at the end an overview or a conclusion .It should also a glossary of terms from the field of knowledge the portfolio is based on.

3.Why should the portfolio be on a website?

Because it can be easily accessed by the person who created it and other people interested in the topic(checked by the teacher for example).Because by creating and using it you gain knowledge(and experience)in working with electronic media.

4.How do you make a website?

There are at least two main ways to crate a website:

*use a web service provider (like the uni website) *create a blog(like this one)

Quiz 2

1.What is a website ?

A website is a set of pages on the World Wide Web which are connected to each other which often contain pictures ,videos and sound.

2.What is a hypertxt?

A hypertext is a way of joining a word or an image to another page ,document etc on the Internet so that you can easily move from one to the other.

3.What is a text ?What are its main properties?

A text is a document written in a book,magazine,etc.Its main properties are:appearance,meaning and structure.

4.How do these properties relate to the mind /to the world?

The meaning(semantics and pragmatics)and the appearance (media)of a text belong to the shared world.Both of them refer to shared knowledge.

The text structure belong to the world of the mind.It is related to the knowledge that one has and that is linked to a judgement that can be made -about the appearance and the meaning of a text.If I can say so,the relation of the shared world to the world of the mind is one similar to what defines the difference between the terms objective -subjective.

Quiz 3

1.What is a dictionary?

A dictionary is an extended document that consists of lists,tree structure or a network in which the entries are usually alphabetically ordered ,giving their meaning ,pronunciation ,(maybe origin also)and usage (in different contexts).

2.What is the difference between a semasiological and an onomasiological dictionary?

A semasiological dictionary is one in which a lexical entry is explained by nearest kind and specific differences:x is a y kind of z.

An onomasiological dictionary is that gives syononyms and antonyms of a lexical entry,that are also entries(their meaning explanation si not given)

The difference between semasiological and onomasiological dictionary consists in their different organization:the first one is organised as a list whereas the latter has a tree structure(taxonomy)

3.What other kinds of dictionaries are there?

Dictionary of :synonyms,antonyms,of idioms,picture dictionaries,spelling dictionaries,monolingual,bilingual ones,in electronic format or as a book,etc.


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2.On defining


1.What are the main kinds of information in a dictionary?

The mai types of information in a dictionary are:

the form (or the appearance)-is it a book or a database,

the content(or meaning)-the meaning of the lexical entries in relation to other words.

the structure of the text (or formulation)-what kind of dictionary-semasiological or onomasiological,kind of definitions (ostensive ,recursive,by nearest kind and specific differences)

2.Give examples of


structure:construction of words,

content:definition,relation with other words,etc.

3.What si the main kind of information which dictionary users are interested in ?

A dictionary user is most interested in the meaning of the words,their definition by genus proximum et differentia specifica.

4.Find dictionary definitions of five different words of different parts of speech and give examples of genus and differentia specifica,and examples of other kinds of definition.

a)cook,(noun)=a person who cooks or whose job is cooking.

genus =person

differentia specifica=who cooks

b)shiver(verb)=to shake slightly because you are cold,frightened ,excited,etc

genus=to shake

differentia specifica=slightly

c)creepy(adjective)=stange in a way that makes you feel nervous.


differentia specifica=in a way that makes you feel nervous

d)gratis(adverb)=done or given without to be payed for

genus =done or given

differentia specifica=without to be payed for

e)after(preposition)=behind somebody when they have left.

genus=behind somebody

differentia specifica=when they have left


definition=a statement that explains the meaning of a word or phrase (Cambridge Dictionary)

explanation=statemen or piece of writing that tells you how sth works or makes sth easier to understand(Oxford dictionary 2000)

6.Give detailed examples, from at least 3 different kinds of dictionary,of


a) Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English
AS Hornby , Sally Wehmeier, Michael Ashby
Sixth edition
Oxford University Press 2000
ISBN 0 19 431 5339

b) Concise THESAURUS
Rosalind Fergusson, Martin Manser, David Pickering
Penguin Books 2002

ISBN 0-140-51520-8

c) Oxford Collocations dictionary for students of English
Different publishers and editors
Oxford University Press 2002
ISBN 0-19-431243-7

-types of lexical information for 3 different kinds of lexical entry:



noun (pl. donkeys) 1 a domesticated hoofed mammal of the horse family with long ears and a braying call. 2 informal a foolish person.

— PHRASES donkey’s years informal a very long time. talk the hind leg off a donkey Brit. informal talk incessantly.

— ORIGIN perhaps from DUN1, or from the given name Duncan(Compact Oxford English Dictionary)

(semasiological dictionary)

spin=spin your wheels American, informal

to waste time doing things that achieve nothing

If we're just spinning our wheels, let us know and we'll quit.(Cambridge Idioms Dictionary)

(dictionary of idioms)

move =go ,walk,proceed,progress,advance ,pass,budge,stir,shift,change position,rare locomote(Oxford Thesaurus of English 2000)

(dictionary of synonyms and antonyms=thesaurus)

7.Create definitions by nearest kind and specific differences for:

hip-hop=style of music prefered by black people

love=feeling that all people have at a certain moment in their lives

lasagna=an Italian dish made from layers of lasagna,finely chopped meat and /or vegetables and white sauce.

8.Describe in detail what is the reality and what are artefacts in the text model given in the text theory introduction:

The text model is very abstract. It presents the different properties of a text that can't be devided so exactly when analysing a text.

1 Kommentar 23.1.06 03:03, kommentieren

3.The architecture of a dictionary


1.What are the megastructure and the macrostructure of a lexicon?Give examples.

The Megastructure af a dictionary is the general structure of a dictionary,which includes the front matter,list of abbreviations,grammar explanations,the metadata,body of the dictionary(which is the macrostructure)and the back matter.

The Macrostructure deals with the organisation of the lexical entries at the level of body of a dictionary,weather is organised as a list ,network or it has tree structure.

2.What is semasiological and onomasiological dictionary?

A semasiological dictionary is a decoding dictionary .called also reader´s dictionary.It´s macrostructure is a list,and includes mainly standard definitions(by nearest kind and specific differences)

An onomasiological dictionary is an encoding dictionary,also called writer´s dictionary,because the meaning of a lexical entry is not given with an explanation,but through synonyms.It has tree structure.It is a Thesaurus.

3.What is the microstructure of a dictionary?

The Microstructure is the organisation of information within the lexical entries.

4.What kind of lexical information is contained in a dictionary´s microstructure?

The microstructure gives information about the meaning of the lexical entry,orthography,pronunciation(IPA transcription),word formation,POS.

5.What is mesostructure?

The mesostructure of a dictionary include relations between lexical entries and other entities.

6.Give examples of mesostructural elements concerning:

a)types of info with reference to the sign model:modality,grammar,object semantics

b)linguistic description reference:abbreviations for parts of speech,characterisation of spelling.

c)cross-references between related entries:co-hyponyms

d)corpus -references:concordance.

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4.Lexical databases

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-the consonants of German which do not occur in English:


-the consonants of English which do not occur in German:

ng sh th

-the vowels of German which not occur in English

ai(Mais),ei(Leiter),äu,ie ,au ,eu

-the vowels of English which do not occur in German




-the characters of German which do not occur in English:


-the characters of English which do not occur in German:

-5 English graphemes containing more than one character:

ph ,sh,ch,

-5German graphemes containing more than one character:


3.Make a list of 5 spelling rules:

a. Nouns that end with –s, -z, -x, -sh, -ch Add –es
i.e. glass/glasses, switch/switches

b. If the base form ends in a single consonant and the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with only one letter, double the consonant before adding –ing or –ed
i.e. occur/occurring, swim/swimming

c. Nouns that end in –o Add –es
i.e. potato/potatoes, hero/heroes

d. If the base form ends in an unpronounced –e, drop the –e before adding –ing and –ed inflections
i.e. create/creating, bake/baking

e. If the preceding vowel is unstressed or spelled with two vowels, do not double the consonant
i.e. enter/entering, visit/visiting

1 Kommentar 26.1.07 19:57, kommentieren

6.Morphology-types of lexical information



1.Define :

Morpheme=smallest part of a word which do have meaning.

Lexical morpheme=is the morpheme that consists of a root(a stem)which carries the lexical information of a word.

Grammatical morpheme=is the morpheme that can be free or bound and which gives the grammatical meaning to a word.

Stem=is the root of a word that can have lexical or grammatical meaning(generally lexical)

Derived stem/compound stem=a derived stem is the result of derivation and consists of a stem and affixes,and a compound stem one made through compunding 2 stems.

2.What is the difference between inflection and word formation?

Inflexion is ment to grammaticalise a word,whereas word formation brings new words,new meanings.

3.What is the difference between derivation and compounding?

They both are ment to bring ,to create new words and difference between them is that the first one is realised by a stem to which affixes apply and the latter consists on 2 stems.

4.Collect 5 longish words and divide them into morphemes.






5.Translate Jabberwocky into your favourite other language.

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