1.Why is a portofolio important?
A portfolio is an important source of informations for preparing for the exam .It consists of notes ,exercises and other materials that can be later useful in refreshing knowledge gained in previous classes.
2.What should a portfolio contain and how are these components defined?
A portfolio should contain :a table of contents,a body(with all the informations )and at the end an overview or a conclusion .It should also a glossary of terms from the field of knowledge the portfolio is based on.
3.Why should the portfolio be on a website?
Because it can be easily accessed by the person who created it and other people interested in the topic(checked by the teacher for example).Because by creating and using it you gain knowledge(and experience)in working with electronic media.
4.How do you make a website?
There are at least two main ways to crate a website:
*use a web service provider (like the uni website) *create a blog(like this one)
1.What is a website ?
A website is a set of pages on the World Wide Web which are connected to each other which often contain pictures ,videos and sound.
2.What is a hypertxt?
A hypertext is a way of joining a word or an image to another page ,document etc on the Internet so that you can easily move from one to the other.
3.What is a text ?What are its main properties?
A text is a document written in a book,magazine,etc.Its main properties are:appearance,meaning and structure.
4.How do these properties relate to the mind /to the world?
The meaning(semantics and pragmatics)and the appearance (media)of a text belong to the shared world.Both of them refer to shared knowledge.
The text structure belong to the world of the mind.It is related to the knowledge that one has and that is linked to a judgement that can be made -about the appearance and the meaning of a text.If I can say so,the relation of the shared world to the world of the mind is one similar to what defines the difference between the terms objective -subjective.
1.What is a dictionary?
A dictionary is an extended document that consists of lists,tree structure or a network in which the entries are usually alphabetically ordered ,giving their meaning ,pronunciation ,(maybe origin also)and usage (in different contexts).
2.What is the difference between a semasiological and an onomasiological dictionary?
A semasiological dictionary is one in which a lexical entry is explained by nearest kind and specific differences:x is a y kind of z.
An onomasiological dictionary is that gives syononyms and antonyms of a lexical entry,that are also entries(their meaning explanation si not given)
The difference between semasiological and onomasiological dictionary consists in their different organization:the first one is organised as a list whereas the latter has a tree structure(taxonomy)
3.What other kinds of dictionaries are there?
Dictionary of :synonyms,antonyms,of idioms,picture dictionaries,spelling dictionaries,monolingual,bilingual ones,in electronic format or as a book,etc.
acronym= a word consisting of the first letters of a phrase,having its meaning.eg.NATO
affix=a morpheme( a bound one)which can be a prefix,suffix,circumfix,infix,circumfix,superfix and which is added to a stem.
allomorph=different forms of the same(bound )morpheme
antonym= a word which has different form and opposite meaning to another one.Thus,they are antonyms.
is a compound of two other stems,each having its own meaning,but put together ,the new word(the compound)has a totally different meaning from theirs.It has the formula:
co-hyponym=equivalenet subordinate terms
complex word=is a ford that consists of at least one stem and that can be a compound ,a derivation(in which has one stem and inflexion),a blend or an abbreviation
computational linguistics=a descipline that involves both linguistics and informatics,and is concerned with dealing with huge amounts of words,developing precise models of grammar and lexic which can be processed automaticaly.
Concordance=A list of all words in a corpus held on a computer database showing every example of a particular word in a corpus.
Corpus linguistics= The branch of linguistics which analyses large corpora (bodies, collections) of written texts or recordings of speech.
Database=An organized set of data that is stored in a computer and can be looked at and used
in various ways.
Dvandva (bicentric compounds)=The meaning of these compounds is calculated according to the formula an AB is an
A and B
Etymology=The study of the origins, history, and changing meanings of words.
Grapheme=(linguistics) The smallest unit that has meaning in a writing system.(àphoneme)
Homonym=Same pronunciation and same spelling for different things; e.g. face (front)- face(head)
Hyperonym=Superordinate term (e.g. an ape is an animal, a poodle is a dog)
IPA (abbr.)=1. International Phonetic Alphabet (a notation system that is used to show the pronunciation of words in any language).
2. International Phonetic Association (founded in 1886)
Lemma=The headword in a dictionary, thesaurus, or encyclopedia, the form looked up.(a degrammaticalised word)
Lexeme=The smallest meaningful objects having a lexical meaning.
Lexicography=The theory and practice of writing dictionaries
Macrostructure=The structure according to which categorisation and search functions can be defined. In general, it is possible to differentiate between two different models. Semasiological macrostructure is form- based, assigning meaning to a form. Onomasiological macrostructure is not form- based, but concept/meaning oriented.
Meronymy=Semantic relation in which something is composed of different parts (e.g. a wheel is part of a car).
Metadata=the data giving information about the production of the product(eg.location and year,publisher and code for a dictionary )
Microstructure=The inherent structure of each lexicon entry; denotes the smallest surface of a lexicon.
Morpheme= The smallest meaningful units,with lexical or grammatical meaning. A word can be comprised of one or more morphemes.
Orthography =The standard system used to write a language is called orthography (from Greek ortho = correct, graphy = writing)
Ostensive definition =Definition by showing (a picture or a life model).
Phoneme=Smallest meaning distinguishing unit(s) in a language. Speech sounds that make two words distinguishable.
Polysemy=One word that has two (or more) (closely) related meanings.
Recursive definition=Defines a word in terms of itself. For defining infinite sets of items; start with root of a word and add something to it ?
Spelling-sound rule = Phonotactics: Possible combinations of phonemes into syllables and words.
Stem (grammar)= The main part of a word that stays the same when endings are added to it: ‘Writ’ is the stem of the forms ‘writes’, ‘writing’ and ‘written’.
Suffix (grammar) =A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word to make another word,
such as -ly in quickly or -ness in sadness—compare AFFIX, PREFIX.
Synonym =Words which mean the same (or similar) thing and can be exchanged for each other.
(e.g. start/begin, near/close).
Syntagmatic relations=Relations of compositionality which construct larger units out of smaller units, e.g. syllables out of phonemes; expressed by rules and networks.
Tatpurusa =The meaning of these compounds is (or endocentric compounds) calculated according to the formula an AB is a B.
Taxonomy =The science of classification according to a pre-determined system, with the resulting
catalogue used to provide a conceptual framework for discussion, analysis, or information retrieval. (From the Greek word taxis (arrangement) and nomos (law). See
Text technology =The interdisciplinary field which involves both text linguistics and computer science,
and which is in some respects a specialisation of computational linguistics in the area of
computation with text data (e.g. the world-wide web, information retrieval in libraries).
Zero-derivation=Special phenomenon in English. It means that a word can change its wordclass without the addition of other morphemes (or by adding an empty morpheme). (e.g. I hope / I have
1.What are the megastructure and the macrostructure of a lexicon?Give examples.
The Megastructure af a dictionary is the general structure of a dictionary,which includes the front matter,list of abbreviations,grammar explanations,the metadata,body of the dictionary(which is the macrostructure)and the back matter.
The Macrostructure deals with the organisation of the lexical entries at the level of body of a dictionary,weather is organised as a list ,network or it has tree structure.
2.What is semasiological and onomasiological dictionary?
A semasiological dictionary is a decoding dictionary .called also reader´s dictionary.It´s macrostructure is a list,and includes mainly standard definitions(by nearest kind and specific differences)
An onomasiological dictionary is an encoding dictionary,also called writer´s dictionary,because the meaning of a lexical entry is not given with an explanation,but through synonyms.It has tree structure.It is a Thesaurus.
3.What is the microstructure of a dictionary?
The Microstructure is the organisation of information within the lexical entries.
4.What kind of lexical information is contained in a dictionary´s microstructure?
The microstructure gives information about the meaning of the lexical entry,orthography,pronunciation(IPA transcription),word formation,POS.
5.What is mesostructure?
The mesostructure of a dictionary include relations between lexical entries and other entities.
6.Give examples of mesostructural elements concerning:
a)types of info with reference to the sign model:modality,grammar,object semantics
b)linguistic description reference:abbreviations for parts of speech,characterisation of spelling.
c)cross-references between related entries:co-hyponyms
-the consonants of German which do not occur in English:
-the consonants of English which do not occur in German:
ng sh th
-the vowels of German which not occur in English
ai(Mais),ei(Leiter),äu,ie ,au ,eu
-the vowels of English which do not occur in German
-the characters of German which do not occur in English:
-the characters of English which do not occur in German:
-5 English graphemes containing more than one character:
-5German graphemes containing more than one character:
sch,pf,ch,ie,3.Make a list of 5 spelling rules:
a. Nouns that end with –s, -z, -x, -sh, -ch Add –es
i.e. glass/glasses, switch/switches
b. If the base form ends in a single consonant and the preceding vowel is stressed and spelled with only one letter, double the consonant before adding –ing or –ed
i.e. occur/occurring, swim/swimming
c. Nouns that end in –o Add –es
i.e. potato/potatoes, hero/heroes
d. If the base form ends in an unpronounced –e, drop the –e before adding –ing and –ed inflections
i.e. create/creating, bake/baking
e. If the preceding vowel is unstressed or spelled with two vowels, do not double the consonant
i.e. enter/entering, visit/visiting
Morpheme=smallest part of a word which do have meaning.
Lexical morpheme=is the morpheme that consists of a root(a stem)which carries the lexical information of a word.
Grammatical morpheme=is the morpheme that can be free or bound and which gives the grammatical meaning to a word.
Stem=is the root of a word that can have lexical or grammatical meaning(generally lexical)
Derived stem/compound stem=a derived stem is the result of derivation and consists of a stem and affixes,and a compound stem one made through compunding 2 stems.
2.What is the difference between inflection and word formation?
Inflexion is ment to grammaticalise a word,whereas word formation brings new words,new meanings.
3.What is the difference between derivation and compounding?
They both are ment to bring ,to create new words and difference between them is that the first one is realised by a stem to which affixes apply and the latter consists on 2 stems.
4.Collect 5 longish words and divide them into morphemes.
5.Translate Jabberwocky into your favourite other language.